My Blog has a tagline "Identify,Improvise,Adapt,Overcome,Enhance". In addition to the "Improvise, Adapt, Overcome" Marine tie-in (Marines like all of our armed forces are cool), I constructed it because its a good framework for problem solving.
Identify. Make sure you know what problem you are solving. If your house is dark, Its best to know if the power is out, or the light switch is off, or a light bulb is blown, before you work on a solution. Make sure you do some troubleshooting to ensure that you are working on the right issue.
Improvise. Take stock of your available resources. Frequently some of your resources will be intellectual (people who know stuff). In the dark house example, it might mean looking for batteries and flashlights, or calling your spouse to find out where the candles and matches are.
Adapt. Make a plan to use your resources to solve your problem. You can use the flashlight to read. You can light the kitchen with candlelight.
Overcome. Implement the plan. Make dinner by candle light, Read the mail with the light from a flashlight.
Enhance. Review the situation. What did you learn? What you could do better? For instance in my example, you may want to have an agreed upon location with your spouse for candles and matches. Possibly you need to set a reminder to check battery inventory monthly. You may want to buy a generator if the power goes out often.
Problem Solved: Solving Problems
Related: Fixing my fence, the ITIL way